Everything You Need To Learn About Endometriosis

Everything You Need To Learn About Endometriosis (in conjunction with Endometriosis Awareness Month)

As an homage to Endometriosis Month, we unveil everything you need to know about this condition. Endometriosis is a common and often debilitating condition that affects millions of women worldwide. Despite its prevalence, many people are still unfamiliar with this condition and what it entails. Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrial tissue, which typically lines the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it. This tissue can attach to other organs and cause pain, inflammation, and a range of other symptoms. The exact cause of endometriosis is still unknown, but there are several theories, including hormonal imbalances, genetic predisposition, and retrograde menstruation. Whether you are living with endometriosis or simply looking to educate yourself about this condition, this article is for you.


The symptoms of endometriosis can be wide-ranging and often overlap with other conditions. Common symptoms include pelvic pain, heavy or irregular periods, pain during intercourse, and fatigue. Endometriosis can also lead to fertility problems, as the tissue can damage or block the fallopian tubes, making it difficult to conceive.

Common signs and symptoms of endometriosis include:

  • Painful periods (dysmenorrhea). Before and for a few days after period, pelvic pain and cramps are common. Additionally, lower back and stomach ache are possible too.
  • Pain with intercourse. Endometriosis often causes pain during or after sexual activity.
  • Pain with bowel movements or urination. You're most likely to feel some sort of pain when passing motion and urine during period.
  • Excessive bleeding. Periodic heavy menstrual cycles or bleeding between periods may occur (intermenstrual bleeding).
  • Infertility. People who are seeking treatment for infertility may occasionally discover endometriosis diagnosis.
  • Other signs and symptoms. During menstrual periods, you could feel exhausted, diarrheic, constipated, bloated, or sick.

Your condition's severity may not always be accurately predicted by how much pain you are in. Endometriosis can be moderate and cause considerable pain, or it can be advanced and cause little to no pain.

Endometriosis can occasionally be confused with other illnesses that can also result in pelvic pain, like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It could be mistaken for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which also produces stomach cramping, constipation, and episodes of diarrhoea. Endometriosis and IBS can coexist, which further complicates the diagnosis.

When to consult a professional

If you are experiencing symptoms such as painful periods, chronic pelvic pain, painful sex, heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding, fatigue, and bowel or bladder issues, it may be a good idea to see a doctor. These symptoms can be indicative of endometriosis, but it's important to note that they can also be caused by other conditions. Only a doctor can diagnose endometriosis with certainty, so it's important to seek medical advice if you are experiencing symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent endometriosis from progressing.


Endometriosis's actual cause is unknown, but there are a number of potential reasons that cause it, including:

  • Retrograde menstruation. When menstrual blood with endometrial cells travels retrogradely, it does not leave the body and instead returns through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity. Over the course of each menstrual cycle, these endometrial cells adhere to the surfaces of the pelvic organs and pelvic wall, where they develop, thicken, and bleed.
  • Transformation of peritoneal cells. According to the "induction theory," which has been put out by researchers, hormones or immunological factors encourage peritoneal cells, which line the inside of your belly, to change into endometrial-like cells.
  • Embryonic cell transformation. During puberty, hormones like oestrogen may cause embryonic cells, which are still forming, to become implants that resemble endometrial tissue.
  • Surgical scar implantation. Endometrial cells could adhere to a surgical wound following an operation like a hysterectomy or C-section.
  • Endometrial cell transport. Endometrial cells could be transported to other bodily parts by blood vessels or the tissue fluid (lymphatic) system.
  • Immune system disorder. The body may not be able to recognise and eliminate endometrial-like tissue that is developing outside the uterus if there is a problem with the immune system.

Risk factors

Your risk of getting endometriosis is increased by a number of things, including:

  • Never giving birth
  • Starting period at an early age
  • Going through menopause at an older age
  • Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days
  • Heavy menstrual periods that last longer than seven days
  • Having more oestrogen in your system or being exposed to more of the oestrogen your body produces over the course of your lifetime
  • Low body mass index
  • It could be hereditary — endometriosis in one or more family members (mother, aunt, or sister)
  • Ailments that interfere with the body’s ability to expel blood during periods
  • Issues with the reproductive tract

Typically, endometriosis appears several years after the Unless you're taking oestrogen, endometriosis signs and symptoms may momentarily become better during pregnancy and may totally go away during menopause.



Fertilisation and implantation

The main complication of endometriosis is infertility. Between one-third and fifty percent of endometriosis sufferers struggle to conceive. Endometriosis can cause damage to the reproductive organs and make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant. This is because the endometrial tissue that is growing outside of the uterus can attach to the fallopian tubes and ovaries, causing inflammation and scarring. This can lead to blocked fallopian tubes, making it difficult for the egg to travel from the ovaries to the uterus.

An egg must be released from an ovary, travel through the nearby fallopian tube, be fertilised by a sperm cell, and then connect to the uterine wall to start the development process in order for pregnancy to take place. However, the illness also appears to have indirect effects on fertility, such as harming sperm or eggs.

That said, many people with mild to moderate endometriosis can still conceive and bring a pregnancy to term. When endometriosis is present, medical professionals occasionally advise against delaying childbearing because the problem could get worse with time.


While endometriosis itself does not cause ovarian cancer, women with endometriosis may have a slightly increased risk of developing ovarian cancer, particularly if they have endometriomas. This is because the endometrial tissue within the cysts can become abnormal and lead to the development of cancerous cells over time. However, it's important to note that the risk of ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis is still relatively low. Most women with endometriosis will not develop ovarian cancer. Although uncommon, endometriosis-associated adenocarcinoma can manifest up later in life in people who have had endometriosis. Regular monitoring by a doctor and prompt treatment of any unusual symptoms can help detect any potential issues early and improve outcomes.